La seconde guerre mondiale

La Seconde Guerre mondiale prend fin sur le théâtre d’opérations européen le 8 mai 1945 par la capitulation sans condition du Troisième Reich . Il s’achève définitivement sur le théâtre d’opérations Asie-Pacifique le 2 septembre 1945. La capitulation également sans condition de l’Empire du Japon est la dernière nation de l’Axe à connaître une défaite totale.

1-L’ampleur

La Seconde Guerre mondiale constitue le conflit armé le plus vaste que l’humanité ait connu. Elle a mobilisé plus de 100 millions de combattants de 61 nations. Et, elle a déployé les hostilités sur quelque 22 millions de km2. En tuant environ 62 millions de personnes, dont une majorité de civils. La Seconde Guerre mondiale est aussi la plus grande guerre idéologique de l’Histoire. Ce qui explique que les forces de collaboration en Europe et en Asie occupées aient pu être solidaires de pays envahisseurs ou ennemis. Ou une résistance a pu exister jusqu’en plein cœur de l’Allemagne nazie en guerre. Guerre totale, elle gomme presque entièrement la séparation entre espaces civils et militaires . Et, elle donne lieu dans les deux camps à une mobilisation massive des ressources non seulement matérielles — économiques et scientifiques — mais aussi morales et politiques, dans un engagement des sociétés tout entières.

2-Les conséquences

Avec certitude, on ne peut pas évaluer la somme des dégâts matériels. Les pertes en vies humaines et les traumatismes collectifs et individuels sont considérables, la violence ayant pris des proportions inédites. Le conflit donne en effet lieu à de multiples crimes de guerre. Ils sont favorisés et banalisés par une violence militaire et policière d’une intensité et d’une profondeur inégalées. Cette violence est notamment contre les civils étant parfois un élément de la stratégie militaire. On assiste ainsi à l’émergence à une échelle inconnue jusqu’alors de crimes de masse particulièrement atroces et pour certains sans précédent. L’Allemagne nazie et du Japon impérial causent ces crimes. Parmi ces crimes figurent des massacres génocidaires allant jusqu’à une organisation industrielle . En s’appuyant sur la déportation en camps de concentrationcamps de travail et camps d’extermination, comportant des chambres à gaz à des fins d’extermination de populations entières (JuifsSlavesTziganes) ou de catégories particulières d’individus (communisteshomosexuelshandicapés, etc.). Particulièrement c’est dû à l’instigation du régime nazi. L’ampleur des crimes des vaincus suscite la définition d’une incrimination nouvelle par les vainqueurs : le crime contre l’humanité. On l’applique notamment au génocide des juifs d’Europe

Pourquoi il a eu cette guerre?

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